Pakar Rumput

Laman Web Rujukan Rumput Tempatan. Local Turf Reference Website

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Archive for the ‘Padang Golf’ Category

Penjagaan rumput padang golf, bola, stadium dll.

Ada Apa Dengan Urea.

Posted by mynormas on August 23, 2016

Kali terakhir saya guna urea sebagai baja (pupuk) tunggal di atas rumput adalah pada tahun 1993 jadi saya rasa tergeletek dalam sebulan ini, ada dua client saya yang mahu urea di gunakan. Saya beritahu mereka saya tidak bersetuju, kedua dua client akur, tetapi pekerja salah seorang client menyembur juga baja urea dari stok lama dan mengakibatkan kerosakan ke atas rumput.

Salah satu kemudaratan menjadi konsultan untuk perkara ‘mudah’ seperti penjagaan rumput ialah bila dah ada perubahan positif kepada padang/halaman yang di mandatkan kepada saya untuk perbaiki, tiba-tiba ramai pakar akan timbul. Dari orang atas yang ada PhD ekonomi (contoh) sampai lah ke pekerja asing yang kerja potong rumput (juga contoh), ada sahaja pendapat dan cadangan. Saya suka kepada perbincangan dan penambahan ilmu berdasarkan pengalaman tempatan tetapi biarlah bersifat dua hala.

Selalunya ialah tentang pembajaan dan penyiraman. Langkah pertama saya dalam pembaikan padang selalunya ialah dengan meminta untuk hentikan penyiraman. Ya, banyak padang yang over-siram atau silap siram (pagi tadi saya nampak satu padang pasang sprinkler selama satu jam dan sprinklernya bukan ‘head-to-head’ maka berlakulah siraman helikopter) dan saya akan mulakan pembajaan kerana kebanyakan padang tidak atau kurang membaja.

Saya biasanya akan memulakan dengan baja murah sama seperti baja yang digunakan untuk sayur atau kelapa sawit tetapi ramai ‘pakar’ yang gemarkan urea dan tidak faham bila saya kata kali terakhir saya guna urea sebagai baja tunggal atas rumput ialah pada tahun 1993.

Saya tidak gemarkan urea sebagai baja tunggal di atas rumput (sila baca ayat ni berkali-kali ya. Katakunci: ‘tunggal’ dan ‘rumput’) kerana ia lebih banyak masalah dari kebaikan.

Masalah:

  1. Perlukan penyembur yang terlatih dan ambil peduli.
  2. Perlukan peralatan yang telah di kalibrasi dengan betul.
  3. Mempunyai hanya satu unsur nutrien (nitrogen 46%).
  4. Oleh kerana ia memberi kesan hijau gelap yang di gemari, terdapat kecenderungan untuk terlebih aplikasi.
  5. Jika ketulan urea berada di atas daun rumput; ia akan menyebabkan kesan ‘terbakar’.
  6. Boleh menyebabkan pertumbuhan mendadak dan masalah potongan.
  7. Boleh menyebabkan dinding sel menjadi lembut dan nipis; memudahkan penyerangan serangga dan penyakit.
  8. Mencepatkan pertumbuhan pucuk tetapi memperlahankan pertumbuhan akar dan meningkatkan keperluan memotong.
  9. Urea akan bertukar kepada gas ammonium dan melowap jika ia tidak di campurkan kepada tanah secara di gaul atau di siram.
  10. Nitrogen boleh di larutlesap (leach) ke sumber air jika hujan lebat atau terlebih siram.

Kebaikan urea:

  1. Sumber nitrogen yang murah berbanding baja sintetik lain. (katakunci: sintetik)
  2. Menghijaukan dengan cepat (ini sebenarnya adalah kerana nitrogen, bukan urea; taburlah baja lain yang ada sama banyak nitrogen, akan hijaulah rumput anda)
  3. Ia cepat mengasidkan tanah dan sesuai untuk tanaman yang suka tanah berasid seperti jagung, strawberry dan lain lain tumbuhan yang perlu nitrogen tinggi.

Gunakanlah baja yang seimbang. Ingat, baja bukan makanan tapi ibarat vitamin kepada rumput. Anda boleh hidup hanya dengan vitamin C? Tentu boleh tapi badan anda perlukan juga vitamin E, A, B complex dan lain-lain. Abaikan mereka dan satu hari nanti anda akan sakit/mati tapi berbanggalah: kulit anda cantik. Gunakanlah multivitamin dan tambah dengan vitamin C jika anda tergolong orang yang percaya vitamin C boleh menghidari penyakit. Insya Allah anda akan lebih sihat.

Jadi kalau manusia guna pelbagai unsur vitamin, kenapa rumput guna satu nutrien saja?

Urea mistakes

Rujukan:

Posted in Landscape, Lanskap, Padang, Padang Bola, Padang Golf, Rumput halaman rumah, Rumput secara am, stadium, Taman | Tagged: , , | Leave a Comment »

Fertiliser: less is more

Posted by mynormas on August 9, 2016

I was doing training at a golf club the past couple of weeks. It was about basic chemical application, y’know, calibration, safety, pest identification and stuff. Since it was the fourth time for the club (the superintendent organised it every alternate year), I thought I’d slip in a module about fertilising, just to keep the training interesting and hopefully to ensure I get invited back next year. Two things came to mind:

One. I was explaining about the nutrients required by turf and how important each nutrient in its own way to the health of the turf. I was writing on the white board when suddenly I drew a wooden barrel (or cask, if you prefer) and mentioned about Liebig’s Law of Minimum. I said that according to Mr. Liebig, each nutrient is important and lacking in any will affect the plant’s health.

Liebig's barrel

Liebig used the image of a barrel with unequal staves to explain how plant growth is limited by the element in shortest supply, just as the level of water in the barrel is limited by the shortest stave.

During the lunch break a participant showed me a picture of the Liebig’s barrel sent by the superintendent (he was sitting at the back of the class) to their group WhatsApp presumably because my drawing was bad. It then occurred to me that I actually read about Liebig’s Law 22 or 23 years ago! I remember because I read it in the local public library. I know it was that long ago because back then, knowledge wasn’t the only thing I was pursuing at the library and when I got married, I largely stopped going to the library.

Anyway, Liebig’s law was more than 150 years old and there probably are people who disagreed with him but the fact that I recalled it at the particular instant reminded me about something I heard or read about the mysteries of the mind and how we don’t actually lose information in the brain, so I came to the logical conclusion: I am more than just a pretty face.

The second thing that struck my mind was when I was explaining about measuring green sizes and the participants eagerly asked that it be included in the practical session later in the evening. Know this; most of my participants are not particularly fond of practical sessions because it involves a lot of calculations. Know this too: many superintendents don’t know or don’t measure their green sizes.

Training day at KLGCC

I told my participants that knowing green sizes is important because it will be easier to weigh the amount of fertiliser needed for each green – based on fertilising rate – as compared to calibrating the fertiliser spreader or worse, having no system at all. It would also make it easy to buy close to exact amount of fertiliser needed instead of the usual one ton figure when what you really need is 0.8 ton for 18 greens for six months (all figures not real).

As an example, if we decide to fertilise at a rate of 1.5kg/100 sq.m then green 7 which is 600 sq.m in size will get 9kg, green 8 (703 sq.m) will get 10.5kg, green 16 (345 sq.m) shall receive 5.2kg of fertiliser brand Y which, when calculated with the percentage of nitrogen in the fertiliser, we can say that each green receives 150g of nitrogen per 100sq.m.

Furthermore if the total sizes of all 19 greens in your course is 9,200sq.m, and you think you will stick with applying 1.5kg/100 sq.m/month of that particular fertiliser, then you’ll know you need 125kg of it every month or about 750kg for the next six months. Why order more? Yet it is quite common for clubs to order an exact one ton despite the protestations of the supplier “NO! Don’t order so much! Order just enough for your needs!”. Ahem.

It is disappointing that I can still find Malaysian golf clubs that apply fertiliser at the rate of one bag per green regardless of green or fertiliser bag sizes. The other method I’ve seen was when I was told that this club used the setting ‘J’ on brand ‘X’ fertiliser spreader. That could’ve sound reasonable except that the spreader was never calibrated and the superintendent doesn’t know the rate of fertiliser he applied.

In the first club, after measuring the greens and weighing the fertiliser according to the size of greens and rate of application, they cut down their fertiliser use from 16 bags to 12 bags per month. Guess what? The greens were greener and in better condition two months later. In the other club, they chose to be secretive about the amount of fertiliser used before measurement or maybe they didn’t know or maybe they were upset that a consultant was forced on them and didn’t want to cooperate: didn’t matter  to me, based on a few factors, I chose a new rate and the greens improved too.

If you think by saving the club’s money every month, producing  greener and better greens means that I’m getting a huge paycheck; you’re wrong. Despite the improvements at one particular club, it still hasn’t paid me for the last four months of my consultancy there. No kidding.

Posted in Golf Course, Golf Course Superintendents, Greens, Padang Golf | Tagged: , , , , , , | Leave a Comment »

Malaysia’s Greens’ Grass

Posted by mynormas on July 18, 2016

The long Aidil Fitri leave (I took about a week off) at the beginning of July took a toll on my schedule. Last week was a pretty hectic week. Looking back at last week, I was struck by the coincidence that on Monday I was consulting a golf course with Tifeagle greens; Tuesday Tifdwarf; Wednesday Serangoon and on Thursday it was a golf course with greens covered with Zoysia . On Friday I visited two football fields in two different states with grass that in Malaysia we call cacamerba grass. Saturday morning found me on another football field that I was working on myself.

Grass on greens

Do pardon the plastic ruler on Tifeagle; I dared not bring a metal ruler through airport security. The Tifdwarf picture was actually to highlight a problem, so it wasn’t the best picture of Tifdwarf ever.

Ya, I took a side job maintaining a football field mainly because I got tired of the maintaining-a-football-field-is-harder-than-a-golf-course-you-wouldn’t-know-coz-you’ve-never-done-it argument. Well now I have and I’m pretty sure the field looked much better than it did before. Maintaining a football field, to me is like maintaining the fairway of a golf course, though I would treat the area in front of the goal like greens with more frequent cultural practice and tender loving care. It wasn’t hard at all. Well, maybe except for the area in front of the goal but fortunately, the football team have agreed to purchase a mobile goalpost for their practice sessions (think of moving the pins on the greens to spread the wear and tear).

Anyway, this article is about the grass on greens. I didn’t realise we had that many variety on Malaysian greens, though some golfers may argue on many golf courses there’s a lot more variety of grass on just one green! Tifdwarf offtypes, weeds, algae and one green with palm tree in the middle notwithstanding, Malaysian golfers do have a choice of grass to putt on. Other than the four I mentioned earlier, we also have Mini-Verde, Bentgrass Penn A4 (in Cameron Highlands, I’m not sure what Bentgrass variety was planted at that Sabah highland course) and also not forgetting Paspalum Supreme on Malaysia’s premier course.

me normas on Bentgrass green (2)

Bentgrass Penn A4 greens. I consulted for the reconstruction of the 1st Nine. Actually didn’t like the idea of Bentgrass but accepted the challenge. This picture was taken in Nov 2014.

Grass species doesn’t affect greenspeed as much as what many golfers, club management and owners think. Granted, some grass species can be mowed at lower heights and that is one factor for greenspeed but I have seen Tifeagle mown at 3.5 mm with speeds of around 7’5″ and I’ve seen Tifdwarf cut at 4.2 mm with speeds of up to 11’9″ and that measurement was taken by tournament referees, not club staff. The golf course with Serangoon greens I visited a few days ago? After just one roll I saw the speed on one green went up from 8’8″ to 9’7″ at the cutting height of 4mm.

What works at one golf course may not work on another for whatever reason that may not fit the species. It could be climate or local conditions like shade or management practices, old habits or even budget. Many Malaysian clubs are willing to spend a lot of money during construction but balk at the comparatively higher maintenance cost a few years down the road.

About the golf course with Zoysia greens; please don’t ask me the name of the club because they haven’t actually embraced it yet. It started out as a golf course with a lot of weeds on the greens. I’m talking about big areas of Cowgrass (Axonopus compressus), spurge, sedges and of course Zoysia encroaching from the rough.  In the first few months I realised that ridding the greens of weeds was a losing battle because of many factors so I decided to do what a doctor friend of mine call the concept of ‘triage’ where you help those that can be saved and leave those that can’t for later, if you have time.

Now some of the greens there are about 80% Zoysia. They look good, much better than before though admittedly, they putt slow. I’ve made some suggestions to fasten it up a bit but going from experience, it’ll be a few months before they get the hang of any new maintenance practice. When they do and start to market their unique greens as such, you as a golfer should try it out. Expand your experience, if it’s slow, adjust your putting. The only time you should have a problem with greenspeed, is when the speed on the 18 greens are inconsistent from one green to the other. Otherwise, by the third green, you should already get the hang of any reasonable speed.

I’ve been lucky to have worked with many of the grasses I mentioned above on an official basis whether as superintendent, club manager or as consultant. Didn’t the English say that ‘Variety is the spice of life’? It’s made for an interesting career.

I do recommend you try playing as many grasses on greens as possible. They are quite different to putt on you know. How different? Go ahead and play them. If you know the grass is different but you can’t feel/see the difference: try playing again. You’ll soon see, I’m sure, that it’ll enrich your experience as a golfer, even as it makes you poorer financially.

OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA

It doesn’t come any more unique than this. Try putting around that.

Posted in Golf Course, Golf Course Superintendents, Greens, Maintenance, Padang Bola, Padang Golf | Leave a Comment »

Happy Aidil Fitri

Posted by mynormas on July 4, 2016

Ramadhan is the ninth month of the Islamic calendar. For the whole month, Muslims all over the world will refrain from eating and drinking in the daytime. The fasting month of Ramadhan is now coming to an end. The month is usually when many – if not most – Malaysian and Indonesian golf courses would do their worst work on their greens. Some would aerate with big/deep tines, some would scarify and some would scarify AND aerate with big/deep tines.

Golfer traffic is very low so might as well get some serious work done on the golf course and most of the golf clubs in Malaysia will concentrate on making more money from the Food and Beverages department via the breaking of fast buffet.

Ramadhan is the ninth month in the Muslim calendar and after that is the month of Syawal. The first day of the month of Syawal is the celebration of Aidil Fitri or otherwise spelled as Eid Al Fitr. It is a big day for many Muslims in Malaysia. It is also a day when we ask for forgiveness from family and friends, in Malay we say “Maaf Zahir dan Batin” which roughly means “I ask for your forgiveness for what I did to you outwardly and may have done wrong to you that may have hurt your feelings” or words to that effect.

In Malaysia and presumably Indonesia too, the day is preferably celebrated with families i.e. parents or grandparents which for most of us, means an exodus out of the cities and turning some parts of the highway into one big parking lot. We complain about it every year and yet every following year we do the same thing. I wish we could just do it without the complaining or… don’t do it.

Anyway, in one or two clubs that I’ve worked in where the staff were mostly local and celebrate what we call as Hari Raya the tension is not about the gridlock on the highways but rather on who gets to go and jam the highway and whine about it and who gets to stay back and whine about it. It can be a difficult juggling act and I can expect no-shows with ‘valid’ reasons too for which I’ll be the one whining.

I usually get by with about five staff and a healthy dose of plant growth regulator applied a week before. What’s needed are just to cut the greens (two staff on ride-ons), rake bunkers (one staff), change pins/tee markers (one) and rubbish collection (one). It gets trickier if irrigation is needed but so far, I’ve managed.

I sometimes will get gift in the forms of hampers delivered to my office so what I do I’ll call the most senior guy working during the holidays (or the biggest bully) and tell him/her to open and distribute the contents of “this hamper on the first day, that hamper on the second day” and so on. I’m not sure if it keeps them happy but at least it gives me less guilt; one from not being around and two, from receiving one too many hampers.

I realise that my blog is read by people from all over the world (also some bloggers too) so just a hint; you can wish your Muslim friends or readers with a “Happy Eid-ul Fitri and Happy Holiday” or just “Happy Eid-ul Fitri” if you are not giving them a holiday…

To my Malaysian Muslim friends, Selamat Hari Raya Aidil Fitri, Maaf Zahir dan Batin and to all, my best wishes, always.

Posted in Golf club, Golf Course, Golf Course Superintendents, Greens, Padang Golf | Tagged: | Leave a Comment »

Racun Apa?

Posted by mynormas on June 27, 2016

Racun makhluk perosak adalah suatu bahan yang selalu kita gunakan samada sebagai penjaga rumput, landskap, halaman, padang ataupun orang biasa. Racun semut atau nyamuk yang kita sembur pada waktu petang untuk menghalau atau membunuh nyamuk adalah contoh racun makhluk perosak. Bahkan lingkaran ubat nyamuk yang kita bakar supaya kita boleh tidur lena juga adalah racun makhluk perosak atau pesticide walaupun kita panggil ia ‘ubat nyamuk’, namun ia bukanlah apa yang kita beri pada nyamuk yang sedang sakit tapi kita beri supaya nyamuk sakit atau lebih baik lagi; mati.

Saya merasa pelik bila saya menerima message dalam group WhatsApp bahawa seorang rakan yang menghadiri taklimat dari pegawai kesihatan tentang Denggi memberitahu bahawa pegawai tersebut mencadangkan penukaran racun supaya nyamuk tidak lali jika hanya satu racun di gunakan. Hmm… bagaimana jika semua racun itu berlainan nama dagangan (Baygon, Ridsect, Fumakilla dsb) tetapi mempunyai bahan aktif yang sama?

Dan ini yang berlaku pada saya minggu lepas;

Lokasi: sebuah pekan kecil di selatan semenanjung Malaysia

Misi: mencari racun rumpai berdaun lebar untuk membunuh semalu untuk padang bola seorang client. Saya telah pergi ke tiga buah kedai; dua kedai hardware yang menjual racun dan juga satu nursery pokok hiasan.

Perbualan:

Saya: “Hai, ada jual racun rumput?”

Pekedai: “Ada, kami ada dua jenis. Yang satu ialah Round-up dan satu lagi yang ini…” (Betul, kebetulan ketiga-tiga kedai pun tunjuk dua racun, kecuali salah satu kedai lagi tunjuk satu jenis racun tambahan tapi di label sebagai baja kerana ia adalah racun yang di haramkan di Malaysia)

Saya: “Eh… tapi kedua-dua racun ni sama. Kedua-dua nya adalah glyphosate”

Pekedai: …(?)

Nama racun

Nama yang biasa kita kenali suatu racun ialah nama dagangan. Terdapat satu lagi jenis nama yang kebanyakan racun di kenali iaitu nama biasa atau common name. Nama biasa lazimnya adalah nama pendek kepada racun itu dan biasanya adalah kependekan daripada nama bahan aktif. yang lebih rumit dan panjang…

Kadang-kadang, nama biasa juga adalah nama generic yang digunakan secara umum oleh pengguna sama seperti mee segera dari pelbagai jenama adalah di panggil sebagai ‘Maggi’ dan ubat gigi dari pelbagai jenama semua di panggil ‘Colgate’.

sample of glyphosate

Contoh racun yang mempunyai bahan aktif glyphosate.

Bahan aktif

Apa yang membuat satu racun itu efektif ialah bahan aktif nya. Bahan aktif ialah bahan kimia di dalam racun herba (atau herbicide dalam konteks artikel ini) yang membunuh atau mencederakan rumpai (dan kadang-kadang…rumput!). Bahan aktif hanyalah sebahagian kecil dari keseluruhan racun, yang lain selalunya adalah apa yang kita panggil sebagai bahan lengai.

Semua racun yang di jual di Malaysia dan telah di sahkan oleh Lembaga Racun Makhluk Perosak (LRMP atau Pesticide Board) akan mempunyai label yang di mestikan mempunyai nama bahan aktif dan kepekatannya dalam racun tersebut. Ya, walaupun racun serangga di rumah.

active ingredient label samples

Label contoh racun disebut di atas mempunyai bahan aktif glyphosate.

Racun rumput

Bila kita pergi ke kedai dan meminta racun rumput; kita akan di tunjukkan -biasanya- kepada racun jenama Roundup dan beberapa racun lagi. Saya pasti jika and perhatikan betul betul, racun lain itu juga akan mempunyai bahan aktif yang sama dengan Roundup iaitu glyphosate.

Glyphosate

Roundup ialah jenama sejenis racun rumpai popular yang di temui oleh seorang ahli kimia dari syarikat Monsanto yang bernama John E. Franz pada tahun 1970 .

glyphosate derivatives

glyphosate

Pada tahun 2000 bila berakhirnya tarikh hakcipta untuk glyphosate maka banyak lah syarikat pengeluar racun yang mengeluarkan racun berasaskan bahan aktif glyphosate di bawah pelbagai jenama. Malangnya kerana populariti Roundup ataupun kerana kurangnya daya kreativiti, banyak racun ini yang menggunakan ‘up’ di belakang nama (kecuali Seven-Up; iaitu sejenis minuman ringan)

Dengan pengetahuan kimia yang berkembang, glyphosate juga telah di kembangkan kepada pelbagai bentuk dan formulasi. Sebahagiannya di jual sebelum berakhirnya hakcipta Monsanto ke atas glyphosate lagi, mungkin kerana ia di jual dengan nama bahan aktif yang berbeza formulasinya. Contohnya (cuba baca kuat-kuat) glyphosate-diammonium, glyphosate-dimethylammonium, glyphosate-isopropylammonium, glyphosate-monoammonium, glyphosate-potassium, glyphosate-sesquisodium dan glyphosate-trimesium.

Namun begitu, apa yang saya ingin sampaikan di sini ialah jika anda ingin membeli racun, jangan hanya dengar apa yang penjual beritahu anda tentang racun itu, tetapi lihat juga apakah bahan aktif dalam racun itu. Jangan beli dua jenama racun yang berbeza tetapi sebenarnya mempunyai satu bahan aktif yang sama.

Rujukan.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glyphosate#Formulations_and_tradenames
http://prpm.dbp.gov.my/
http://roundup.ca/en/rounduphistory
http://npic.orst.edu/ingred/active.html
http://www.alanwood.net/pesticides/glyphosate.html

Posted in Fields, Golf Course, Padang, Padang Bola, Padang Golf, Rumput halaman rumah, Rumput secara am, stadium, Taman | Tagged: , , , , , , , , , | Leave a Comment »

Tanah hydrophobia

Posted by mynormas on April 13, 2016

“Tanah hydrophobia” ialah cadangan terjemahan yang saya dapat dari PRPM milik Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka bila saya tanya tentang ‘hydrophobic soil’ iaitu tanah yang takut atau anti air. Pernah kah anda menyiram pada halaman atau padang anda dengan air yang cukup banyak tetapi ia masih lagi kering? Orang tuduh anda tidak siram sedangkan anda siram? Mungkin tanah anda adalah tanah hydrophobia; ia tidak telap air (terjemahan water repellent juga dari PRPM DBP) maka natijah dari penyiraman anda ialah rumput tetap kering tapi lumut mula naik. Atau mungkin anda pernah alami penyiraman yang air tidak meresap ke dalam tanah tetapi mengalir di atas permukaan sahaja?

“Sifat hydrophobia tanah boleh melewatkan penyerapan air ke dalam tanah untuk jangkamasa dari beberapa saat hinggalah ke berminggu minggu. Tanah hydrophobia di katakan di sebabkan utamanya dari salutan molekul organik ke atas partikel tanah. Molekul organik ini mungkin datang dari tumbuhan, bahan reput, hidupan atau mikro-organisma bawah tanah atau jika selepas tanah terbakar. Sifat hydrophobia berubah ubah, menyebabkan ia sukar di ramal dan di perhati. Ia boleh di lihat selepas waktu kemarau yang panjang dan hilang bila musim hujan bermula” Perenggan di atas di petik dari sebuah artikel dari Jabatan Geografi, Swansea University.

Bagaimana boleh kita atasi sifat hydrophobia ini? Kita boleh guna cara mekanikal iaitu dengan menggunakan benda tajam untuk menebuk permukaan tanah itu seperti cara Pengudaraan Halaman atau Pengudaraan Padang.

Satu cara lagi ialah dengan menggunakan Agen Pembasah, yang tiada kena mengena dengan agen pembelasah seperti James Bond, Jason Bourne, Jack Bauer, Jack Bristow, Justin Bieber dan sebagainya.

Apa itu Agen Pembasah atau wetting agent? (Kita bincang tengan agen pembelasah dengan nama initial JB di lain tempat). Agen pembasah ialah bahan sebatian yang membantu air untuk melawan sifat tanah yang hydrophobia. Tapi awas! Bukan semua wetting agent adalah sama.Kalau silap sembur, rumput boleh mati, seperti kawan saya seorang ni

Untuk mengetahui lebih lanjut tentang wetting agent, sila lah ke seminar yang PERCUMA jika anda ahli GCSAM, RM50 jika anda adalah affiliate MGA (Malaysian Golf Association) dan hanya RM100 jika anda bukan ahli di Bukit Jalil Golf and CC pada 9.00 pagi 19 April. Tempat adalah terhad jadi hubungi GCSAM di nombor yang tertera di bawah.

Posted in Fields, Golf Course, Golf Course Superintendents, Landscape, Padang, Padang Bola, Padang Golf, stadium, Taman | Tagged: , , , , , , | 1 Comment »

Penyiraman

Posted by mynormas on March 21, 2016

Dalam beberapa hari ini (minggu ke tiga Mac 2016) kita akan menjaga rumput melalui dua fenomena cuaca panas yang kebetulan berlaku serentak iaitu ekuinoks dan juga El Nino. Saya biasa tengok rumput yang di siram hingga lecak tetapi mati kekeringan akibat kesilapan penyiraman. Di sini saya lampirkan nota tentang penyiraman rumput yang merupakan sebahagian dari penulisan yang akan menjadi bahagian dalam buku saya akan datang.

brown grasscrown grass diagramBila cuaca menjadi panas, kawasan rumput yang tidak mendapat siraman akan menunjukkan kesan stress dari kemarau dan kepanasan. Apa yang boleh di lihat pada waktu awal ialah kawasan yang bertukar warna kepada kehitaman di padang. Daun rumput akan berlipat dan kawasan yang di pijak akan menunjukkan kesan tapak kaki lebih lama. Ini semua di akibatkan oleh dehidrasi, iaitu bila tumbuhan tidak mempunyai kandungan air yang cukup di dalam sel nya. Seterusnya kebanyakan rumput yang tidak menerima air yang cukup akan menjadi dorman. Rumput dorman ialah rumput yang mempunyai daun yang mati tetapi akar tajuk (crown roots) yang masih hidup dan boleh bertahan selama tiga hingga empat minggu tanpa siraman.

Jika kemarau berlanjutan,  pada minggu ke tiga siram dengan banyak iaitu sehingga 12mm (0.5 inci) air untuk mengelakkan kematian akar tajuk atau crown roots. Akar tajuk adalah bahagian di mana kebanyakan pertumbuhan baru bermula.

Penyiraman rumput jangan di lakukan mengikut jadual tertentu, contohnya menyiram setiap hari, tetapi penyiraman mestilah di lakukan mengikut keperluan rumput. Menyiram rumput mengikut jadual akan menyebabkan pembaziran air dan akar rumput yang pendek kerana kebiasaan senang mendapat air. Selain itu, tanah yang lembab menyebabkan mudah mendapat penyakit dan juga lumut.

Jenis siraman

Dalam konteks ini terdapat dua jenis siraman (tidak termasuk siraman untuk melarutkan baja atau mencairkan bekas minyak yang tumpah dsb)

  1. Siraman untuk menghidratkan rumput.
  2. Siraman untuk menyejukkan kanopi rumput.

 

Siraman Penghidratan

Secara ringkasnya ia adalah siraman yang biasa di lakukan untuk memberi air kepada rumput. Kuantiti air yang di perlukan oleh rumput di tentukan oleh jenis rumput, ketinggian potongan, tekanan dari penggunaan padang dan juga jenis tanah. Rumput yang di tanam di atas pasir kasar memerlukan jumlah air yang lebih banyak kerana pasir kasar tidak dapat memegang kuantiti air yang banyak berbanding dengan tanah yang mempunyai partikel halus seperti tanah liat.

Jumlah air yang di perlukan di ukur dengan membuat andaian jika air tersebut tidak meresap ke dalam tanah sebaliknya ia kekal di atas tanah, berapakah ketinggian air tersebut. Adalah penting bahawa air yang di siram rata ke atas semua permukaan rumput yang terlibat.

Umumnya rumput memerlukan lebih kurang 2.5 – 3.0mm air sehari ataupun 25 mm (satu inci) seminggu.cara siram as picture

Siraman penyejukan

Akar yang di gunakan untuk mengambil nutrien dan air ialah akar rerambut yang amat halus  iaitu di antara 15 – 17 micrometer diameter dan 80 – 1,500 micrometer panjang.  Akar rerambut adalah sensitif dan banyak terdapat di satu hingga dua inci teratas lapisan tanah. Suhu yang tinggi di lapisan ini akan merosakkan bukan sahaja akar rerambut tetapi juga akar biasa dan seterusnya menjejaskan keupayaan rumput mengambil air dan nutrien dari tanah.

Tujuan penyiraman ini adalah untuk menurunkan suhu kanopi dan juga lapisan atas bahagian tanah. Siraman penyejukan hanya mengambil masa satu persepuluh dari masa siraman penghidratan.

Teori yang mengatakan butir air yang berada di atas daun akan bersifat seperti kanta yang akan memfokuskan sinar matahari ketika panas terik untuk membakar daun adalah mitos, sebarang cahaya matahari yang cukup kuat untuk membakar daun akan mengeringkan butir air.

Waktu-waktu menyiram

Waktu yang terbaik untuk menyiram rumput untuk tujuan penghidratan ialah pada awal pagi kerana

  1. Tiada gangguan; ia merupakan masa sebelum padang di gunakan untuk aktiviti sukan atau riadah.
  2. Air tersimpan di dalam tanah untuk di ambil oleh rumput pada waktu ia di perlukan
  3. Rumput dan tanah berada dalam keadaan basah ketika cuaca semakin panas.
  4. Waktu awal pagi lazimnya mempunyai kurang angin yang akan meniup siraman air.

Penyiraman untuk penyejukan seharusnya di lakukan pada masa cuaca paling panas, contohnya pada tengahari dan awal petang. Elakkan dari menyiram lewat petang.

Menyiram di waktu petang bermaksud menyiram rumput yang sudah pun mengalami tekanan kerana ketiadaan air ataupun sudah dorman malah mungkin sudah pun mati dan juga menyebabkan tanah basah di waktu senja dan malam yang memudahkan kulat membiak dan menjangkit rumput yang stress tadi.

Cara-cara menyiram.

Samada menggunakan sistem pengairan moden ataupun paip getah, adalah penting untuk mempastikan semua bahagian tanah menerima jumlah air yang sama rata. Ambil kira bahawa kawasan rumput yang berada di lereng bukit atau di kawasan curam akan mengalami keadaan air akan mengalir di permukaan untuk turun ke tempat rendah sebelum ia meresap. Maka rumput yang berada di lereng atau di tempat curam perlu di siram sedikit tetapi selalu. Contohnya, jika rumput di kawasan rata di siram selama 20 minit, rumput di lereng akan di siram 5 minit empat kali. Berhenti siram apabila air bertakung atau mengalir di permukaan lereng, kemudian ulang; berhenti siram bila air bertakung atau mengalir di permukaan lereng, ulang.water ponding during irrigation watering

‘Siram dengan banyak tetapi jarang-jarang’ adalah cara terbaik, ini akan mengajar rumput untuk mencari air dan tidak terlalu bergantung kepada siraman. Siram banyak akan mempastikan air masuk hingga ke bahagian bawah tanah sebagai simpanan. Berapa banyak dan berapa jarang bergantung kepada jenis tanah dan pemerhatian penjaga padang.Copyright and please click

Untuk nota selanjutnya tentang isu lain dalam penyiraman seperti hydrophobicity, wetting agents, dormancy dan sebagainya; sila tunggu buku saya.

Rujukan:

http://www.turffiles.ncsu.edu/alerts/grasses/turfgrass-heat-and-drought-stress

http://prpm.dbp.gov.my/Search.aspx?k=dormant

http://www.thelawninstitute.org/pages/education/lawn-maintenance/let-your-turfgrass-go-dormant/

http://www.petanihebat.com/2013/09/klasifikasi-dan-morfologi-tanaman-padi.html

http://buckeyeturf.osu.edu/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=1194&catid=1:latest-news&Itemid=170

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Root_hair

 

Posted in Greens, Padang, Padang Bola, Padang Golf, Rumput halaman rumah, stadium, Taman | Tagged: , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a Comment »

Hias Atas (Topdress)

Posted by mynormas on March 8, 2016

Jika padang atau laman tidak rata, antara perkara pertama yang akan di lakukan ialah memijak, menghentak ataupun menggelek tempat tinggi supaya ia sama rata dengan tempat rendah. Ia adalah tindakan naluri tetapi jika di lakukan berulang kali ataupun jika tanah tersebut adalah tanah liat ataupun jika penggelek tersebut adalah terlalu berat; kawasan yang tinggi itu akan menjadi mampat dan kawasan yang lembut akan menjadi lembang atau lembah. Bagaimana pula dengan permukaan berlekuk yang tidak kelihatan di bawah rumput? Bagaimana tentang bekas tayar kenderaan, tapak kaki dan sebagainya yang menyebabkan lekuk atau galur? Bolehkan di gelek, di hentak ataupun di pijak? Memperkenalkan ‘hias atas’ ataupun dalam bahasa Inggeris; topdressing.

Atas permintaan beberapa pihak, saya ingin menulis tentang kerja topdressing atau istilah  yang di cadang oleh Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka dan di gunakan di Indonesia, Brunei dan Malaysia; ‘hias atas’.

Kita mungkin rasa perkataan ‘hias atas’ itu adalah pelik tetapi kalau kita sebagai petutur bahasa inggeris, perkataan ‘top dress’ yang di gunakan dalam bidang pertanian juga adalah janggal (pakaian atas?). Secara definasi nya perbuatan ‘topdressing’ yang saya akan sebut sebagai hias atas mulai sekarang ialah perbuatan menabur selapis bahan, samada baja, pasir, atau apa pun di atas permukaan tanah dengan banyak dan kemudian meratakan.

Dalam konteks penjagaan rumput, perbuatan hias atas di buat untuk membuat tiga keadaan:

  1. Meratakan dan menghilangkan lekuk lekuk di permukaan tanah.
  2. Menambah nutrien atau menukar zat (contohnya pH) tanah.
  3. Menukar sifat, struktur atau profil tanah

Hias atas untuk meratakan permukaan.

Lekuk lekuk di atas permukaan tanah akan berlaku akibat permainan, bekas tayar mesin potong ataupun kerja-kerja penyelenggaraan biasa seperti merumpai, menyembur racun dan sebagainya.

Kerja hias atas akan di tabur samada di seluruh permukaan tanah (hias atas keseluruhan) ataupun hanya di lokasi tertentu (hias atas setempat) yang di syakki mempunyai masalah lekuk sahaja. Bahan yang biasa di gunakan ialah pasir kering kerana pasir lebih mudah untuk di ratakan.

DSC_0347

Hias atas keseluruhan sebuah padang bola.

DSC_0216

Hias atas setempat (kawasan lekuk sahaja)

Pasir akan di tabur menggunakan mesin ataupun tangan dan kemudian, menggunakan alat khusus iaitu lawn leveller, papan yang rata ataupun sejenis tikar besi, pasir akan di tarik dan di tolak supaya pasir yang berada di kawasan tinggi masuk ke kawasan rendah.alat tool topdress rata

Hias atas utk menambah nutrien atau menukar zat tanah.

Kadang kadang pembajaan atau pemupukkan perlu di lakukan secara menyeluruh dan perlahan. Ini lazimnya di lakukan dengan baja/pupuk foliar tetapi di lakukan dengan baja organik kerana baja organik juga mempunyai sifat ‘lepas lambat’ atau slow release. Selain dari itu kadang kadang zat tanah yang contohnya terlalu berasid juga memerlukan hias atas menggunakan kapur tertentu. Ia tidak di anggap sebagai baja atau pupuk kerana ia di tabur untuk pengubahan tanah, bukan memberi nutrien kepada tumbuhan.

Hias atas untuk menukar sifat atau profil tanah

Tanah yang terlalu berpasir mempunyai sifat terlalu berliang (porous), menjadikan ia cepat kering dan tidak mampu ‘memegang’ nutrien lama.  Jadi hias atas selepas proses pengudaraan tanah di lakukan akan menggunakan bahan yang mempunyai sifat yang berlawanan dengan pasir samada tanah ataupun bahan tidak organik seperti zeolite ataupun bahan asli seperti sekam padi dan sebagainya. Biasanya lebih dari tiga kali di perlukan untuk menukar sifat tanah. Hias atas mestilah di lakukan dalam kuantiti yang cukup untuk masuk ke lubang pengudaraaan jika partikel baru adalah lebih kecil dari partikel sedia ada di permukaan.

Syarat-syarat hias atas

  1. Bahan yang di gunakan untuk hias atas tidak mempunyai saiz partikel yang lebih kecil dari bahan yang sediada di permukaan sekarang. Penggunaan pasir yang lebih halus dari dari pasir sediaada akan menyebabkan pasir baru masuk ke celah rongga dan menyumbat pergerakan air dan nutrien ke bawah.

    the 'layering effect'

    Pelapisan akibat hias atas tebal.

  2. Hias atas tidak boleh di lakukan terlalu tebal hingga ia melemaskan rumput dari mendapat cahaya matahari ataupun menjadi punca pelapisan atau layering. Pelapisan terjadi bila hias atas baru terlalu tebal dan menyekat pergerakan udara kebawah (walaupun partikel baru lebih besar dari partikel lama).
  3. Jangan siram terlalu lama ataupun lakukan hias atas sewaktu musim hujan, faktor air mengalirkan pasir mesti di ambil kira.

Cara-cara hias atas

  1. Tabur pasir ke atas permukaan yang perlu di hias atas
  2. Tolak dan tarik pasir di atas permukaan supaya ia masuk ke lekuk dan turun dari tempat tinggi.
  3. Siram sedikit supaya pasir turun ke bawah.

alat tabur topdress

Kekerapan hias atas

  • Untuk kawasan yang mempunyai pemotongan amat rendah seperti di atas green di padang golf atau lawn bowl yang mana potongan ialah di antara 3-8mm, hias atas boleh di lakukan dengan amat nipis seminggu sekali.
  • Kawasan penting seperti depan pintu gol, wicket cricket ataupun green padang golf yang di potong agak tinggi, hias atas boleh di lakukan sebulan sekali.
  • Untuk kawasan yang menerima permainan lasak seperti di tee padang golf, tempat keluar masuk di taman atau halaman dan kotak penalti; juga sebulan sekali.
  • Untuk kawasan luas tetapi penting seperti fairway (atau mungkin zon pendaratan bola sahaja) seluruh padang bola dan sebagainya; hias atas di lakukan setahun sekali bersama sama dengan pengudaraan tanah atau dua kali setahun.

Copyright and please click

 

Posted in Padang, Padang Bola, Padang Golf, Rumput halaman rumah, stadium, Taman | Tagged: , , , , | Leave a Comment »

Fairways

Posted by mynormas on February 9, 2016

Unmaintained fairways are not something new in Malaysia. I’m sorry, let me rephrase that: Low maintenance fairways are not something new in Malaysia, since I know many of our superintendents won’t agree (even if golfers do). Out of the 200 golf courses in Malaysia, the number of them that actually maintained their fairways beyond mowing are very few. I don’t agree to not maintain fairways at all but in the effort to be ‘sustainable’ and to survive, I actually think its a pretty good idea to have some minimum level that we won’t go beyond.

Lets defined maintained fairways first anyway: I’d say they’re

  1. Mown, regularly and not just once in a while and at a consistent cutting height.
  2. Fertilised, as per requirement and at the optimum level.
  3. Done cultural practice when necessary; things like aeration, vertical cutting, y’know… stuff like that.
  4. Watered during the dry season (this should be in ‘cultural practice’ but what the heck).
  5. Drained of excess water during the rainy season via adequately constructed or maintained subsoil or surface drainage.
  6. kept as much as uncontaminated by weeds as possible.
  7. kept to not having any bald areas (don’t you just hate it when your ball is on the fairway but its on hard clay soil that you know is going to damage your club and duff your shot?)

Otherwise, and as are often seen in Malaysia we are left with fairways that are wet in the rainy season, dry (and dead) in the dry but most importantly, and this is the culmination of the lack of all of the above practices, mostly weeds that survived the water-logged, drought, no fertilising, compacted condition of the fairway.

I think its okay. When it rains in Malaysia, it pours anyway so most golfers avoid playing in the rain. When its really dry, its hazy so most golfers avoid playing during the driest months. Of course, if your fairway are the sort that turns muddy when wet and hard as concrete when dry, you had better have fantastic greens.

So, as long as the fairway has a consistent surface that a golfer can hit a ball as best as he could without damaging his club or his ball I’m sure most golfers are happy enough. Its when a fairway’s surface are not consistent that issues arise. If I hit further than my mate but my ball lands on a area of a fairway that’s bald or hard (at least on a wet surface I may be able to declare casual water) or the weeds are so long that I can’t make a good shot then I’ll get angry because it causes me to lose the advantage of a longer drive or a well-placed shot. Especially if my mate hits a puny shot, lands on prime fairway land and he makes this smug face while whistling, making this funny walk. One day I’m going to get into my buggy and run you over…

Golfers are also prone to anger when the ball they hit and they saw it land on a fairway but they can’t find it because its buried under the fairway for some future archaelogist to find a thousand years from now but more likely an enterprising staff later in the day to sell it back to you in a bag of used balls when you come again next weekend.

It really isn’t that much of a deal to maintain the minimum. This advice may not work for all golf courses but for most clubs that I’ve seen in Malaysia, apart from good subsoil drainage; some aeration and regular mowing is good enough.

Hollow tining is good but if the problem is the cores and topdressing, may I recommend just slicing the fairways more regularly? Instead of hollow-tining once a year maybe slice six or ten times a year? You don’t have to close the course because the damage isn’t as bad as hollow tines. My experience is that after a few rounds of slicing, my fairways won’t be as soggy so soon after the beginning of the monsoon. There are of course, other factors involved so there may be some other methods to try too but many older clubs built with input from expat experts have one (I have seen a club with two) fairway slicer rusting and rotting in the workshop. Just be careful of slicing during a drought because the sliced hole may stay for as long as the drought lasts.

fairway slicer

Slicing will help with aeration and water penetration.

As for mowing there are two issues I’d like to bring up. One is that the insistence of many that a fairway can only be cut with a five-gang mower. It would be good and nice if you can afford it but if you can’t; why suffer? Buy a small to mid-sized tractor and fix it with mowing attachments! It costs less than one-third of a fairway mower and most mechanics can take care of it. When the time comes and you can finally afford a five-gang, the tractor can be used for other works. All you have to do is change the attachment.

Cutting height: about 15 - 17mm.

If you think a small rotary mower can’t do stripes; think again. This small mower on a course with a lot of Lovegrass does it very well.

tractor reel mower (2)

This tractor is a bit large for my liking but the small rural club have used it for years. They’ve stopped mowing the rough around greens this year because of the wet condition.

 

 

The second issue is that reel mowers can cut some of the long weeds on Malaysian fairways. I’ve seen superintendents send staff with brush-cutters or even lawnmowers behnd their five-gang mowers to cut these weeds. Why not use rotary mowers? Nowadays the five-gang mowers can be fitted with rotary mowers or you can also use a tractor-pulled rotary mower.

mow lovegrass 2

Note the long grass springing back up behind the mower.

mow fairway cutter

And this guy has to come behind the five-gang to cut the long weeds.

5 gang rotary fairway mower (2)

Or you can buy a five-gang fitted with rotary blades and save on backlapping at the same time.

 

 

But the most important thing is; don’t neglect the fairway. If you have a bald spot repair it or at the very least, mark it with a GUR or do something.

Golfers will, mainly, judge a golf course by its greens but the fairway is the area a non-golfer could judge a golf course because thats what they see from the clubhouse, the road or maybe even their houses beside the course; you really don’t want to be judged badly for something that’s not necessarily hard to maintain.

Posted in Golf Course, Golf Course Superintendents, Padang Golf | Leave a Comment »

Unaffordable Course

Posted by mynormas on January 26, 2016

The USGA Green Section wrote a tongue-in-cheek, sarcastic even, article on its website on how golf courses increase their maintenance costs. I may not agree with all of them (edging the buggy paths, for example) but there are plenty that I agree with and am surprised that Malaysian golf courses continue to do them or even constructing them. Lets list and summarise  them here; words in bold are from the article (ok, maybe I paraphrased here and there: sorry) and those not in bold are my comments.

  1. Having (or adding) a lot of bunkers which should be maintained to be consistent and uniform. The more bunkers a golf course has, the more difficult it is to be maintained to be consistent and uniform or even maintained regularly. And no, I don’t think consistently and uniformly not maintaining them at all counts.

    Now almost all new bunkers in Malaysia 'must' look like this. I once asked "Why?!" and was told "There's a new cloth/coat/technology to hold the sand". "Thats good" I said "but it will still increase your construction and maintenance cost and it looks out of character from your older bunkers!" "Ya... but everyone else has them" was the reply.

    Almost all new bunkers in Malaysia ‘must’ look like this. I once asked “Why?!” and was told “There’s a new cloth/coat/technology to hold the sand”.
    “Thats good” I said “but it will still increase your construction and maintenance cost and it looks out of character from your older bunkers!”
    “Ya… but everyone else has them” was the reply.

  2. Plant more trees. Ya… There are owners and bosses who love to plant trees. Committees too. Perhaps some people think its a legacy thing. With too much trees, grass don’t get enough sunlight and the efficiency of your mowers is less to mow around them. Plus your rough/fairways dries out slower because less air and sun.
  3. Lakes and stream banks. Mowing and trimming them as close to the water edge as possible. These are mostly manual work.
  4. A ball washer for every hole. If you must have them (they’re sponsored perhaps?) install them at tees of holes 1, 10 and at your par-3s. Golfers or caddies can make use of them while waiting for their turn. If I have a ball washer I’d be changing the soap water every week.
  5. Let the maintenance staff fill the divots instead of educating golfers (and caddies) to do it.
  6. Blowing debris from fairways and roughs (I may not agree totally on this.  Though I usually blow the leaves on Fridays only)
  7. Have a multitude of mowing heights. This is my pet peeve. I try very hard to not roll my eyes when superintendents proudly tell me that their tee is mowed at 14mm, the collar is at 12mm the apron is at 15; the fairway collar at 20, the light rough… As if golfers or even the staff can tell the difference of 2mm. I’m betting the Myanmarese mechanic back at the workshop is laughing to himself while setting everything at 17mm… For most clubs; I suggest only three mowing heights: greens, fairway (=tee, collar, apron etc) and rough (=light rough, deep rough etc).
  8. Mow the greens and/or tees with walk-behinds. Mind you most clubs in Malaysia get away with it because instead of either two ride-ons or six walk-behinds greensmowers for 18 holes; some clubs have two or three walk-behinds for 18 holes and don’t see a problem with it.
  9. Ornamental flower beds. I totally agree. Why have an unmaintained flower bed? I actually conspired with a superintendent of a client club by removing a long neglected flower bed while the boss is away and pretending it was never there. Long story… Maybe one day I’ll tell it.
  10. Irrigate non-playing areas. I took out a lot of sprinklers from rough areas.
  11. Overseed turf that would go dormant. Not applicable to Malaysia.
  12. Make your natural unnatural. Yeah… about this. I think we shold keep natural areas to be natural however, this does not mean unmanaged; I usually send workers once a year to kill new trees, ‘volunteer’ oil palms and creeper plants.
  13. Plant the wrong grasses for your area. You know; Seashore Paspalum for fields far from the seashore or Bermudagrass/Tifeagle for areas with a lot of shade.
  14. Edge the buggy paths frequently. I actually see nothing wrong with this if you have the manpower. I do this at least at holes 1 and 10 for the best first impressions.
  15. Let your irrigation system get too old. At the very least the pump house lah…
  16. Use plenty of signs, stakes and ropes. Ya. Mowing around these takes time and reduce efficiency.

For detailed sarcasm, visit the page at www.usga.org/course-care/forethegolfer/steps-to-make-your-course-unaffordable.html.

For sharing information about how to not increase the cost of your course, call Normas at 03-5I3I-OO66 or email me at mynormasATconsultant.com replacing AT with @. 

Posted in Golf club, Golf Course, Golf Course Superintendents, Padang Golf | Tagged: , | Leave a Comment »

 
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